Confused about the difference between Present Perfect Tense and Past Perfect Tense? Here’s the explanation you need.
First of all, there are three perfect tenses in the English language and they are Present Perfect, PastPerfect, and FuturePerfect. They are used to describe completed actions.
Present Perfect and Past Perfect tenses are both used when you are talking about something that occurred before a specific reference point. However, the main difference lies on the reference point they use. They also differ in form, function, and conditional situations.
Below is a more detailed explanation on how Present Perfect and Past Perfect tenses are used.
The Present Perfect Tense uses the present as a reference point.
Present Perfect Tense is formed by adding:
Has or Have + past participle
Have you cleared your room?
Use Present Perfect Tense in these situations:
• For unfinished situations – when an action started in the past and still continues to the present.
I have been cleaning the house all morning.
Jon has lived in this house for twenty years now.
• For past experiences – when an action occurred at an unspecified time before the present.
Anna has just finished reading the book.
She has been to Europe twice.
I’ve sprained my ankle.
• For changes that have taken place over time.
Her Math skills have improved since hiring a tutor.
The Present Perfect Tense is not used for conditional formations. However, it is common to use the following words in present perfect tenses: just, already, recently, yet, never, ever, and before.
I’ve never seen this movie before.
She has already washed the laundry.
The Past Perfect Tense uses the past as a reference point.
Past Perfect Tense is formed by using the past tense of the verb have and adding the past participle:
Had + past participle
I had met him before the meeting.
Use Past Perfect Tense in these situations:
• When an action happened before something else in the past.
She failed her practical exam because she had not practiced enough.
I had studied Spanish before I moved to Spain.
The robber had just left the scene of the crime before the police arrived.
I had just gone inside when it started to rain.
• When an action was completed before a specific time in the past.
When I arrived in school this morning, the teacher had already left.
Everyone had gone home by the time I got to the party.
• When you are expressing a wish, hypotheses, or a condition and result.
The girl wished she had worn a nicer dress.
If I had woken up earlier this morning, I would have caught the bus.
I would have cooked dinner if you had asked.
• When you are expressing reported speech.
The teacher had said it would be a long exam.
My mom asked if we had cleaned the room.